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Cross-Polarization Optical Coherence Tomography in Comparative in vivo and ex vivo Studies of the Optical Properties of Normal and Tumorous Brain Tissues

Cross-Polarization Optical Coherence Tomography in Comparative in vivo and ex vivo Studies of the Optical Properties of Normal and Tumorous Brain Tissues

Kiseleva E.B., Yashin K.S., Moiseev A.A., Sirotkina M.A., Timofeeva L.B., Fedoseeva V.V., Alekseeva A.I., Medyanik I.A., Karyakin N.N., Kravets L.Ya., Gladkova N.D.
Keywords: white matter; cortex; experimental tumor model; high grade glioma; cross-polarization optical coherence tomography; CP OCT; attenuation coefficient; in vivo and ex vivo studies.
СТМ, 2017, volume 9, issue 4, pages 177-187.

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The aim of the study was to provide visual and quantitative evaluation of tumorous and normal brain tissue images obtained by cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP OCT) in a comparative in vivo and ex vivo study.

Materials and Methods. The CP OCT as a non-damaging noninvasive optical method for tissue structure imaging was used in the study. It enables obtaining volumetric images of 2.4×2.4×1.25 mm3 in size in real time within a short time of 26 s. The objects were tumorous and normal brain tissues of 12 experimental animals (Wistar rats): 4 — intact, 4 — with induced malignant glioma 101.8 and 4 — with induced malignant glioma C6.

The cortex and white matter in intact rats and the central part of the tumor (from the cortical surface) in rats with tumor models were imaged by CP OCT first in vivo, and then the same regions were scanned ex vivo. To evaluate quantitatively the CP OCT data, the calculation of the attenuation coefficients for each type of tissue was done.

Results. Qualitative image analysis of normal brain tissues and gliomas showed that the ex vivo CP OCT images have the intensity and the attenuation rate (in both the initial and orthogonal polarizations) greater than those obtained in vivo. Quantitative analysis of the CP OCT images revealed significant differences (p<0.02) between the attenuation coefficients (for both tumors and the white matter) found in vivo (5.5 [4.8; 5.8] mm–1 for glioma 101.8; 3.2 [2.4; 4.3] mm–1 for glioma C6; and 7.5 [7.0; 8.0] mm–1 for the normal white matter) as compared with those found ex vivo (7.0 [5.9; 8.1] mm–1 for glioma 101.8; 6.8 [6.2; 7.9] mm–1 for glioma C6; and 9.0 [8.4; 9.5] mm–1 for the normal white matter). For the cerebral cortex, no significant difference was found in this case (5.8 [4.9; 6.6] mm–1 versus 6.3 [5.5; 7.1] mm–1, p=0.34). A comparison of the attenuation coefficients between the cortex and the white matter, as well as the white matter and malignant tissues, showed significant differences both in vivo and ex vivo. Cortex has got unique characteristics on in vivo CP OCT images that disappear on ex vivo CP OCT images.

Conclusion. The present comparative analysis of the optical properties of white matter and tumorous tissues of the brain allow us to conclude that the CP OCT images obtained ex vivo show a full qualitative similarity with the in vivo CP OCT images. The quantitative evaluation of the CP OCT signals revealed a significant difference in the attenuation coefficient (p<0.005) between the tumorous tissue and the white matter both in ex vivo and in vivo study. When the optical coefficients of tissues are evaluated in vivo, it is necessary to introduce corrections based on the known differences between the ex vivo and in vivo attenuation coefficients.

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Kiseleva E.B., Yashin K.S., Moiseev A.A., Sirotkina M.A., Timofeeva L.B., Fedoseeva V.V., Alekseeva A.I., Medyanik I.A., Karyakin N.N., Kravets L.Ya., Gladkova N.D. Cross-Polarization Optical Coherence Tomography in Comparative in vivo and ex vivo Studies of the Optical Properties of Normal and Tumorous Brain Tissues. Sovremennye tehnologii v medicine 2017; 9(4): 177–187, http://dx.doi.org/10.17691/stm2017.9.4.22

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