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Mechanosensitivity of Cells and Its Role in the Regulation of Physiological Functions and the Implementation of Physiotherapeutic Effects (Review)

Mechanosensitivity of Cells and Its Role in the Regulation of Physiological Functions and the Implementation of Physiotherapeutic Effects (Review)

Potekhina Yu.P., Filatova A.I., Tregubova E.S., Mokhov D.E.
Key words: mechanosensitivity; mechanical transduction; mechanical stimuli; extracellular matrix; osteopathic manual therapy; mesenchymal stem cells.
2020, volume 12, issue 4, page 77.

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Regulatory signals in the body are not limited to chemical and electrical ones. There is another type of important signals for cells: those aremechanical signals (coming from the environment or arising from within the body), which have been less known in the literature. The review summarizes new information on the mechanosensitivity of various cells of connective tissue and nervous system. Participation of mechanical stimuli in the regulation of growth, development, differentiation, and functioning of tissues is described. The data focus on bone remodeling, wound healing, neurite growth, and the formation of neural networks. Mechanotransduction, cellular organelles, and mechanosensitive molecules involved in these processes are discussed as well as the role of the extracellular matrix. The importance of mechanical characteristics of cells in the pathogenesis of diseases is highlighted. Finally, the possible role of mechanosensitivity in mediating the physiotherapeutic effects is addressed.

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