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COVID-19 in Patients with Diabetes: Clinical Course, Metabolic Status, Inflammation, and Coagulation Disorder

COVID-19 in Patients with Diabetes: Clinical Course, Metabolic Status, Inflammation, and Coagulation Disorder

Belikina D.V., Malysheva E.S., Petrov A.V., Nekrasova T.A., Nekaeva E.S., Lavrova A.E., Zarubina D.G., Atduev K.A., Magomedova D.M., Strongin L.G.
Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; diabetes mellitus; glycemia; hypercoagulation; systemic inflammation.
СТМ, 2020, volume 12, issue 5, pages 6-18.

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The aim of the investigation was to study the clinical course of COVID-19 in the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and elucidate possible mechanisms of their mutual aggravation.

Materials and Methods. The study included 64 patients with COVID-19; of them, 32 were with DM (main group) and 32 were DM-free (control group). The groups were formed according to the “case–control” principle. During hospitalization, the dynamics of clinical, glycemic, and coagulation parameters, markers of systemic inflammation, as well as kidney and liver functions were monitored and compared.

Results. Among patients with DM, the course of viral pneumonia was more severe, as evidenced by a 2.2-fold higher number of people with extensive (>50%) lung damage (p=0.05), an increased risk of death according to the CURB-65 algorithm (1.3-fold, p=0.043), and a longer duration of insufficient blood oxygen saturation (p=0.0004). With the combination of COVID-19 and DM, hyperglycemia is persistent, without pronounced variability (MAGE — 1.5±0.6 mmol/L), the levels of C-reactive protein (p=0.028), creatinine (p=0.035), and fibrinogen (p=0.013) are higher, manifestations of hypercoagulability persist longer, including slower normalization of antithrombin III (p=0.012), fibrinogen (p=0.037), and D-dimer (p=0.035).

Conclusion. The course of COVID-19 in patients with DM is associated with a high severity and extension of pneumonia, persistent decrease in oxygen supply, high hyperglycemia, accelerated renal dysfunction, systemic inflammation, and hypercoagulability.

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