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Обучаясь у природы: бактериальные споры как мишень для современных технологий в медицине (обзор)

Обучаясь у природы: бактериальные споры как мишень для современных технологий в медицине (обзор)

Б.Г. Андрюков, А.А. Карпенко, И.Н. Ляпун
Ключевые слова: бактериальные споры; биотехнологии; споруляция; экзоспоры; эндоспоры; атомно-силовая микроскопия; рамановская спектроскопия; плазмохимические методы.
2020, том 12, номер 3, стр. 105.

Полный текст статьи

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2011

Способность некоторых представителей родов Clostridium spp. и Bacillus spp. к спорообразованию в экстремальных внешних условиях давно стала предметом медико-биологических исследований. Бактериальные споры представляют собой дормантные клеточные формы грамположительных бактерий, обладающие высоким потенциалом устойчивости и способностью выдерживать экстремальные условия среды обитания. Благодаря этим свойствам споры признаны самыми устойчивыми биологическими системами на планете, а спорообразующие микроорганизмы получили широкое распространение в различных экосистемах.

Спорообразующие бактерии уже долгие годы вызывают повышенный научный интерес из-за своей эпидемиологической опасности. В течение десятков или сотен лет бактериальные споры могут пребывать в покоящемся состоянии, а после попадания в благоприятные условия организма человека или животных превращаются в вегетативные формы, которые вызывают инфекционный процесс. Наибольшую угрозу среди болезнетворных спорообразующих бактерий представляют возбудители сибирской язвы (B. anthracis), пищевой токсикоинфекции (B. cereus), псевдомембранозного колита (С.difficile), ботулизма (С. botulinum), газовой гангрены (С. perfringens).

Для эффективной профилактики тяжелых инфекционных заболеваний в первую очередь необходимы исследования молекулярной структуры бактериальных спор и биохимических механизмов споруляции, разработка инновационных методов обнаружения и обезвреживания дормантных клеток. Другая сторона проблемы — необходимость изучения экзо- и эндоспор с позиций получения аналогичных искусственно синтезированных моделей с перспективами использования в современных медицинских технологиях для разработки термостабильных вакцин, доставки биологически активных веществ к тканям и внутриклеточным структурам. В последние годы бактериальные споры стали интересным объектом изучения с позиции новой парадигмы одноклеточной микробиологии для исследования микробной гетерогенности с помощью современных аналитических инструментов.

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